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This is pointed to from the robots.txt file and is typically called sitemap.xml.
Sitemaps may be addressed to users or to the software. Many sites have user-visible sitemaps that present a systematic view, typically hierarchical, of the site. These are intended to help visitors find specific pages, and can also be used by crawlers. Alphabetically organized site maps, sometimes called site indexes, are a different approach.
For use by search engines and other crawlers, there is a structured format, the XML Sitemap, which lists the pages in a site, their relative importance, and how often they are updated.